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容安館日札·第一百三十七則(范旭仑整理)  

2012-01-16 21:26:46|  分类: 《容安馆札记》研 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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容安館日札·第一百三十七則(范旭仑整理) 

    John Dickson Carr, The Life of Sir Arthur Conan Doyle。以稗官筆法叙事,而浮囂拉雜,遠遜Hesketh  Pearson, A. Conan Doyle,依據雖廣,不足貴也。如p.279Conan Doyle云“Just remember that no woman is ugly”,而Pearson, p.182:“No woman is ugly. Every woman is beautiful. But some are more beautiful than others”,隽永多矣。參觀“Lord Stoweel: Brother John, this port is good. Lord Eldon: Brother William, all port is good, but some port is better than other(The Pollock-Holmes Letters, ed. M. De W. Howe, II, p.174); Emily Faithfull, Three Visits to America (1884), p.326記一Feminist云:“I believe sexes were created perfectly equal, with the woman a little more equal than man”(E. J. Dingwall, The American Woman, p.100引);Samuel Butler, Note-books: All philosophies, if you ride them home, are nonsense; but some are greater nonsense than others”; P. Guedalla: “A Russian Fairy Tale”, in which the villain “believed that all fairies were equal before the law, but held strongly that some fairies were more equal than others” ( T. L. S., 26 Nov. 1982, p.1292); No?l Coward: “The Café de la Paix”: “Never mind, dear, we’re all made the same, though some more than others” ( The Penguin Dict. of Modern Quotations, p.53); George Orwell, Animal Farm, p.87: “All animals are equal, but some animals are more equal than others”; Encounter, no.38, p.86: “All literary butlers are perfect, but some are perfecter than others, and Jeeves is the mostest.”

    知福爾摩斯為Joseph Bell者,莫早於R. L. Stevenson,與Conan Doyle書云:“Only the one thing troubles me: can this be my old friend Joe Bell?(Letters of R. L. S., ed. Sidney Colvin, II, p.346).

    Bell觀人術(trained eye...deductive powers...This man is a left-handed cobbler...This man is a French-polisher”)(Carr, p.23)。按希臘哲人Democritus亦具此技。Diogenes Laertius, IX, 42: When Hippocrates came to see him, he ordered milk to be brought, and, having inspected it, pronounced it to be the milk of a black she-goat which had produced her first kid...Moreover, Hippocrates being accompanied by a maidservant, on the first day Democritus greeted her with ‘Good morning, maiden,’ but the next day with ‘Good morning, woman. As a matter of fact the girl had been seduced in the night. (The Loeb Classical Library, E. T. by R. D. Hicks, vol. II, pp.451-3). Claude de Rulhière亦有觀人術,略類此,見Diderot所記(Sainte-Beuve, Causeries du Lundi, IV, pp.572-3)。《大正大藏經》第四卷《舊雜譬喻經》卷上第二十二則云:“有二人從師學道。於路見象跡,一人言:‘此母象懷雌子,象一目盲;象上有一婦人,懷女兒。’後悉如所言。一自念:‘我與俱從師學,獨不見要。’後還白師,師呼一人,問何因知此。答曰:‘我見象小便地,知是雌象。見其右足踐地深,知懷雌也。見道邊右面草不動,知右目盲。見象所止有小便,知是女人。見右足蹈地深,知懷女。我以纖密意思惟之耳’”(《能改齋漫錄》卷十八袁天綱郊行見牛跡知牝牛左目傷必生牡犢事,實本此)。《聊齋誌異》卷九《刁姓》則仙舫附記:“某甲號稱預知,善決人吉兇。高坐一廟廊,時大雨如澍。有客執雨具,提筥,筥盛梨二,藥裹一,奔入,問吉兇。甲起課曰:‘問病。’客然之。又曰:‘病熱渴。’客又然之,而尚未之神也。忽又曰:‘子姓王。’客始大驚。又謂:‘病者當為爾妻。’其人惶恐,側拜,泣問愈否。大呼曰:‘歸,體愈矣。’客款謝而去。其子異而問之。曰:‘笆有藥裹,知其問病;置二梨,知病熱渴;雨具柄雕“王記”,則為王姓無疑。’其子曰:‘何以知其為妻?’甲笑曰:‘冒雨覓藥,奔入求卜,恐卽父母瀕危,亦未必如是急急也’”(《六合內外瑣言》卷十二《占乾鑿度》一則全同)。元曲孫仲章《勘頭巾》第三折則儼然福爾摩斯之判析物證矣。他如Voltaire, Zadig: Le chien et le cheval (Romans et contes, Pléiade, pp.9ff); Die Wunderblume: Der Aufmerksame Mann, s.247-8; E. Storer, Il Novellino第三则(pp.40-44)(按實本之《天方夜譚》“The Adventures of the Royal Bastard, The Thousand Nights and One Night, tr. Powys Mathers, IV, pp.49-61: The sultan and three hashish-eaters)。皆福爾摩斯術之祖也。

    Carr, p.107: In Egypt the Khedives Government translated [Holmess] exploits into Arabic and issued them as a text-book for police.”按《燕下鄉脞錄》卷十:“順治七年《三國演義》譯成,國初滿洲武將不識漢文者類多得力於此。嘉慶間忠毅公額勒登保初以侍衛從海超勇公帳下,每戰輒陷陣。超勇曰:‘爾將材可造,須略識古兵法。’以翻清《三國演義》授之。卒為經略”云云。二事無獨有偶(按震鈞《天咫偶聞》卷二云:“國初滿洲理學有阿什坦,字海龍,康熙九年官給事中。時稗官小說盛行,滿人翻譯者眾;海龍上言,學者立志,宜以聖賢為期,經史為導,此外雜書無益之言悉當屏絕。請敕旗下人,自經史外雜書不許翻譯。報可”)。又劉鑾《五石瓠》卷五《水滸小說之為禍》一條云:“獻忠之狡也,日使人說《三國》《水滸》諸書,凡埋伏攻襲咸效之。八大王【獻忠在穀城時舊號】老本營管隊楊興吾嘗語孔尚大如此”;《莊諧選錄》卷二記胡文忠公曰:“草野中又全以《水滸傳》為師資,滿口英雄好漢,所謂奇謀秘策,無不粗鹵可笑”;卷八:“日本人為拿破崙傳,言其行軍擕書一冊,藏庋甚秘,不使人見,蓋卽吾華之《水滸傳》也。”

    Carr, p.142: Lieutenant-Colonel F. N. Maude: The advantage of either sword or lance in cavalry work is that a severe wound drops the man at once. A man may be mortally wounded by rifle or revolver bullet and still fight on for a couple of hours.”按此兵家舊說。Souvarov: La balle est folle, mais la ba?onnette sait ce quelle fait (Larousse du XXe Siècle, art. Souvarov). Hugo, La Légende des Siècles, XLIX. Le Temps Presse, no.6 Le Cimetière dEylau: Le sabre est un vaillant, la bombe une tra?tresse (Oeuv. Poét. Comp., éd. B. Valiquette, p.591).

    Carr, p.234: “He invented the enigmatic clue...illustrated by a passage which has been repeated over and over: ‘Is there any point to which you would wish to draw my attention?’ ‘To the curious incident of the dog in the night-time.’ ‘The dog did nothing in the night-time.’ ‘That was the curious incident (The Memoirs of S. H.: Silver Blaze”。參觀His Last Bow: The Devils Foot: “‘I [S. H.] followed you.’ ‘I saw no one.’ ‘That is what you may expect to see when I follow you’”).按此亦與古為新。希臘哲人語如“When [Thales] was asked why he had no children of his own, he replied ‘because he loved children.’” (Diogenes Laertius, I. 26, “The Loeb Classical Library”, E. T. by R. D. Hicks, vol. I, p.27); “When [Solon] was weeping for the loss of his son, and someone said to him, ‘It is all of no avail,’ he replied, ‘That is why I weep, because it is of no avail’” (I, 63, vol. I, p.65; cf. Gray’s sonnet on the death of Richard West: “And weep the more because I weep in vain”); “When someone...asked [Myson] why he laughed when no one was near, he replied, That is just the reason’” (I, 108, vol. I, p.113).機杼如一。

    T. S. Eliot愛讀福爾摩斯探案,見T. S. Eliot: A Symposium, compiled by R. March and Tambimuttu, p.90

    汪穰卿《莊諧選錄》卷八《密會》一則卽《五橘核》也;歇洛克律師者卽福爾摩斯。汪以為實事,不知其出稗官也。汪書成於光緒三十年。

 

 

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