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錢鍾書先生生平與學術研究

生平 思想 家世 文集 資訊 影像 評論 人物 ……

 
 
 

日志

 
 

Mondanité:錢默存神學輯校 Limited Views upon Christian Ideas  

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周易正義

 

p. 7. 中世紀哲人(St Augustine)謂“不變而使一切變”(Immutabilis, mutans omnia).

 

Confessions, I, iv, “Loeb”, I, 8.

 

p. 19. 聖奧古斯丁斥君主明知宗教之妄而誘民信為真, 俾易于羈絆(et homines principes, ea quae vana esse nonverant religionis nomine populis tanquam vera suadebant, hoc modo eos civili societati velut aptius alligantes)

 

St Augustine, The City of God, IV, xxxii, “Loeb”, II, 122.

 

p. 26. 蓋視女人身為男子行欲而設(instrumenta libidinis, sex object): 故女而守貞, 反負色債, 女而縱淫, 便有捨身捐軀諸功德. 釋氏之“金沙灘頭馬郎婦”(詳見«太平廣記»卷論卷一〇一«延州婦人»), 基督教之聖姑娜非沙(Santa Nafissa)、聖姑埃及女瑪利亞(Santa Maria la Gitana), 皆此物此志.

 

[mondain : Santa Nafissa Santa Maria la Gitana 是虛構人物.]

 

p. 31. 宗教家言常以空無一物之虛堂、淨無點墨之白紙, 象示所謂至大極本之真質(emptiness or void as the negative representation of the numinous), 即反象以徵之充類至盡.

 

R. Otto, The Idea of the Holy, tr. J. W. Harvey, 70–2.

 

p. 42. 西方神秘家(Dionysius the Areopagite)謂損以求之(Via negativa), 則升而中於無名, 益以求之(Via affirmativa), 則降而至於多名; 故大道真宰無名(anonymous)而復多名(polynonymous).

 

R. A. Vaughan, Hours with the Mystics, 6th ed., I, 115–6.

 

p. 43. 然上帝無情, 則天人懸絕, 禱祀唐捐; 而上帝有情, 又下躋眾生, 無以高異. 於是談者彌縫補苴以求兩全, 或謂其“倒是無情卻有情”(passus est impassibiliter; impassibilis sed non incompassibilis)

 

S. Athanase, quoted in Leibniz, Théodicée, Disc. prél., §22, Die Philosophischen Schriften, hrsg. C. J. Gebbardt, VI, 63; S. Bernard, quoted in Feuerbach, Das Wesen des Christenthums, Kap. 5, Sämmtliche Werke, hrsg. W. Bolin und F. Jodl, 67.

 

pp. 46 47. «繫辭»: “聖人以此洗心, 退藏於密”. . . 王引之«經義述聞·易»下謂“洗”與“先”通, 虞翻解“先心”為“知來”, 是也, 班固«幽通賦»亦曰: “神先心以定命”. 王蓋不究義理, 并弗顧文理, 而衹知字之通假耳. . . . «幽通賦»: “神先心以定命兮, 命隨行以消息”, «文選»載班固妹曹大家註: “言人之行各隨其行, 命者神先定之.”兩句相對相當, “行”為“人之行”, 則“心”即“人之心”, 而“神”者, “大道神明”. 蓋謂“命”已“先”由天“定”, 非人“心”能回(foreordination), 與虞翻以“先心”為前識“知來”(foreknowledge)之解, 了不相涉而幾若仇; 王氏引以張目, 乖矣!

 

p. 53. «舊約全書»亦言: “谷升為陵, 山夷為壤”(Every valley shall be exalted, and every mountain and hill shall be made low);

 

Isaiah, XL, 3; Luke, III, 5. Cf. W. Y. Tindall, John Bunyan, Mechanick Preacher, 115.

 

毛詩正義

 

P. 84. 約翰·唐(John Donne)說教云: “妻不過夫之輔佐而已, 人無重其拄杖如其脛股者”(She is but Adjutorium, but a Help: and nobody values his staffe, as he does legges); 亦謂妻非手足耳.

 

Donne, Sermons, ed. G. R. Potter and Evelyn M. Simpson, II, 345.

 

P. 86. 我而多情, 則視物可以如人(I-thou), 體貼心印, 我而薄情, 則視人亦祇如物(I-it), 侵耗使役而已.

 

Martin Buber, Between Man and Man, tr. R. G. Smith, 3; I and Thou, 4.

 

p. 92. 耶穌又悲世憫人, 其容常戚戚, 終身不開笑口.

 

St Basil, Ascetic Works, tr. W. K. L. Clarke, 180. Cf. E. R. Curtius, Europäische Literatur und lateinisches Mittelalter, 2. Aufl., 492.

 

p. 100. 張爾歧«蒿菴文集»卷三«濟陽釋迦院重修記»譏“與佛法為市”之“功德”云: “希冀念熾, 懸意遙祈, 當其舍時, 純作取想, 如持物予人, 左予而右索, 予一而索十”; 雖僅嗤市道之“功德”(fides mercenaria), 而不啻并狀“不得落節”.

 

p. 145. 夫矢口出怨望怒罵之語者, 私衷每存格天、回天之念, 如馬丁·路德所謂: “吾人當時時以此等咒詛喚醒上帝”(We must now and then wake up our Lord God with such words), 其事無用, 而其心則愈可哀已.

 

Martin Luther, Table Talk, tr. W. Hazlitt, “Bohn’s Library”, 153 (Jeremiah cursing the day of his birth).

 

p. 148. «正義»: “人困則反本, 窮則告親, 故言‘我先祖匪人’, 出悖慢之言, 明怨恨之甚.” 則由怨言進而為怒罵, 詛及己之祖宗, 恨毒更過於«正月»«小弁», 大類«舊約全書»中先知咒罵己之誕生, 母之孕育等.

 

Jeremiah, 22·14; Job, 3·3. Cf. Scott: “He [Swift] early adopted the custom of observing his birthday as a term not of joy but of sorrow, and of reading … … the striking passage of Scripture in which Job laments” etc. (J. G. Lockhart, The Life of Sir Walter Scott, ch. 7, “Everyman’s”, 250).

 

左傳正義

 

p. 183. «舊、新約全書»記上帝欲降罸於人, 每以誑言詭術欺誘之, 甚且自誇上天下地唯己獨尊, 能為善亦能作惡. 左氏中鬼神之不惜使詐, 正其倫類. 既徵古宗教家言之尚稚淺椎魯, 而信奉鬼神者衷曲之牴牾矛盾亦無心流露焉.

 

1 Kings 22.22, Ezekiel 14.9, Isaiah 14.5–7; 2 Thessalonians 2.11.

 

p. 184. 故曰: “魔鬼出世, 實在上帝之先”(At bottom the devil is more ancient than God).

 

R. Otto, The Idea of the Holy, tr. J. W. Harvey, 26, 123–6.

 

p.196. 聖經公會官話譯本«舊約全書»有云:“押尼珥對約押說:‘讓少年人起來, 在我們面前戲耍罷’. (Let the young men arise and play before us). … … 那日的戰事凶猛, 押尼珥和以色列人敗在大衛的僕人面前”.

 

II Samuel, II, 14.

 

p. 209. 基督教長老有專門學問(casuistry), 辨究遇事應物, 犯戒而不失為守戒;

 

Cf. C. F. D’Arcy, A Short Study of Ethics, 218.

 

p. 219. «大宗師»引杖人曰: “貧、病、死是三大恩人”; 足以概矣.

 

Cf. Eckhard: “Das schnellste Tier, das dich trägt zur Vollkommenheit, ist Leiden”, quoted in Nietzsche, Schopenhauer als Erzieher, §4, Werke, hrsg. K. Schlechta, I, 317; Jeremy Taylor, Holy Dying: “The soul by the help of Sickness knocks off the fetters of pride and vainer complacencies”, The Golden Grove, ed. L. P. Smith, 88; Novalis, Fragmente, §984, hrsg. E. Kamnitzer, 344: “Krankheiten zeichnen den Menschen vor den Tieren und Pflanzen aus. Zum Leiden ist der Mensch geboren. Je hilfloser, desto empfänglicher für Moral und Religion”; Simone Weil, La Pesanteur et la Grâce, 109: “La misère humaine contient le secret de la sagesse divine, et non pas le plaisir”.

 

pp. 244 5. 又一文家云: “善德與過惡之區別, 非如敵國之此疆彼圉間以墉垣關塞、大海崇山, 界畫分明, 而每似村落之比連鄰接” (Virtues and vices have not in all their instances a great landmark set between them, like warlike nations separate by prodigious walls, vast seas, and portentous hills; but they are oftentimes like bounds of a parish); 尤罕譬而喻.

 

Jeremy Taylor: “Righteousness Evangelical”, L. P. Smith, ed., The Golden Grove 147.

 

p. 246. «舊約全書»亦有水潑於地, 收拾不起(As water spilt upon the ground which cannot be gathered up again)之喻.

 

II Samuel, 14:14.

 

史記會注考證

 

pp. 267 8. 西籍自«聖經»下及但丁、密爾敦、特萊敦等名什寫上帝, 均謂光裏雲繞, 不許人逼視, 但可聞聲(dwelling in light unapproachable; e col suo lume sé medesmo cela; invisible amidst the glorious brightness, a voice midst a glorious cloud; a blaze of glory that forbids the sight); 至寫魔王鬼魁, 亦稱其高據寶座, 能矚拱服之諸么魔鬼子而不為所觀(round about him saw, but unseen).

 

1. Timothy, 4. 16; Purgatorio, XVII. 57; Paradise Lost, III, 357 ff., VI. 25 ff., X. 32f.; Dryden, The Hind and the Panther, I, 66 ff.

 

Paradise Lost, X. 447–8.

 

p. 306. 馬遷唯不信“天道”(divine justice), 故好言“天命”(blind fate); 蓋信有天命, 即疑無天道, 曰天命不可知者, 乃謂天道無知爾.

 

p. 391. 西方千五百年前舊說亦有以為大道裂而學術分歧, 然各派相爭亦復相輔, 如樂之和乃生於音之不同(Truth is one; just as the Bacchantes tore asunder the limbs of Pentheus, so the sects both of barbarian and Hellenic philosophy have done with truth. The dogmas held by different sects coincide in one, either as a part, or a species, or a genus. For instance, though the highest note is different from the lowest note, yet both compose one harmony).

 

St Clement of Alexandria, The Miscellanies, or Stromata, Bk. I, ch. 13, tr W. Wilson, “Ante-Nicene Christian Library”, IV, 389.

 

老子王弼本

 

p. 412. “天下皆知美之為美, 斯惡已, 皆知善之為善, 斯不善已”. . . 以至陶勒(Tauler)所謂“混然一團”(on allen underscheit), 季雍夫人所謂“聖漠然”(la sainte indifférence); 此物此志.

 

p. 420. 斯多噶哲學家之“無感受”(參觀«周易»卷論«繫辭»之二), 基督教神秘宗之“聖漠然”, 與老子之“聖人不仁”, 境地連類.

 

p. 421. 黃老道德入世而為韓非刑名苛察, 基督教神秘主義之用而為約瑟甫神父(Père Joseph)之權謀陰賊, 豈盡末流之變本忘源哉? 或復非跡無以顯本爾.

 

A. Huxley, Grey Eminence, 137–8, 186.

 

p. 429. 聖·保羅誡徒衆: “毋供養肉體, 縱隨嗜欲”(Make not provision for the flesh, to fulfil the lusts thereof).

 

The Romas, 11 14.

 

p. 430. «新約全書»亦言“有人為登天而自宮”(that made themselves eunuchs for the kingdom of heavens sake); 或有云閹者之魂升舉, 上帝親啟天門以納之(The Lord himself opens the kingdoms of the heavens to the eunuchs); 長老奧立經(Origen)之自犍最為著例.

 

Matthew, 14 12; cf. Augustine, Confessions, VIII. I, Loeb, I, 404.

 

E. Westermarck, Early Beliefs and their Social Influence, 1223.

 

p. 431. 西方古說亦有以身心截為兩橛, 謂犯戒由心不在身(Mentem peccare, non corpus), 貞潔乃以論心, 身遭淫辱固無妨(Si autem animi bonum est [pudicitia], etiam oppresso corpore non amittitur);

 

Livy, I, 1 viii. 9 (Collatinus et al to Lucretia), “Loeb”, I, 202; St. Augustine, The City of God, 1. xviii, “Loeb”, Vol. I, p. 80, cf. XIV. iii “anima peccatrix fecit esse corruptibilem carnem”.

 

p. 438. 釋慧皎«高僧傳»卷五記道安曰: “不依國主, 則法事難舉”; 海涅嘲中世紀基督教乃精神與物質之協議(ein Konkordat zwischen dem Geist und der Materie), 前者居虛位(de jure herrscht), 後者掌實權(de facto herrscht), 一皇而一帝; 亦殊途同歸於“依二諦”而已.

 

Heine, Zur Geschichte der Religion und Philosophie in Deutschland, I, Sämtliche Werke, Weichert, VIII, 24–6.

 

p. 448. 返為反之反亦即“否定之否定”, 十四世紀德國神秘宗鉅子講道集中已言之(unity is a negation of negation and denial of denial).

 

Meister Eckhart, Sermons, tr. J. M. Clark, Sermon XXI, p. 230; cf. p. 27.

 

p. 449. 西方神秘家言所謂“拋撇得下”(Gelassenheit).

 

Angellus Silesius: “Gott aber selbst zu lassen” (L. Forster, The Penguin Book of German Verse, 144); Mme Guyon: “Les âmes en Dieu perdues,/ Ne voient plus même leur rien” (A. J. Steele, Three Centuries of French Verse, 221).

 

p. 451. 聖·奧古斯丁曰: “汝居吾中, 吾却外覓”(et ecce intus eras et ego foris, et ibi te quaerebam); 德國神秘宗詩人有句: “帝天即在身, 何必叩人門? (Der Himmel ist in Dir/ Was suchst Du ihn denn erst bei eines anderen Tür?).

 

Confessions, X. 27; cf. I. 2: Quo te invoco, cum in te sim?, Loeb, I, 4.

 

Angelus Silesius, Der Cherubinische Wandersmann, F. J. Warnke, European Metaphysical Poetry, 192.

 

p. 455. Martin Buber, Between Man and Man, tr. by R. G. Smith, p. 3: “For a conversation (Zwiesprache) no sound is necessary, not even a gesture”

 

p. 457. 西方一善賞析文體者亦謂神秘家言, 詞旨紛沓若狂舞然, 後語抵銷前語(Mystics have surrounded God with a wild dance of words, where each negates the one before)

 

K. Vossler, The Spirit of Language in Civilization, tr. O. Oeser, 33–4 (Rilke, Das Stundenbuch, II: “und sich den andern immer anders zeigt”); cf. G. Marcel, Homo Viator, 312: “A chaque instant Rilke brise les images qu’il vient de former et leur en substitute d’autres qui peuvent paraître inverses“.

 

p. 464. 德國神秘宗一詩人(Daniel von Czepko)嘗作小詩, 題曰«因彼故此»(Jedes durch Andere), 足為翻案語、寃親詞、正言若反之式樣. 故如“黑暗之光”(rayo di tiniebla; du dunkel-helles Licht; au rayon ténébreux; a deep but dazzling darkness)②、“死亡之生”(We need death to live that life which we cannot outlive; to liue but that he thus may neuer leaue to dy; du tötest den Tod, durchlebst ihn ewigtief)③、“苦痛之甘美”(O Sussigkeit in Schmerzen! O Schmerz in Sussigkeit!)④等語, 不可勝稽, 皆神奇而化臭腐.

 

Maz Wehrli, Deutsche Barocklyrik, 3. Auf. 170.

 

San Juan de la Cruz, Noche Escura del Alma, II. 5 (E. A. Peers, Spanish Mysticism, 223); Catherina Regina von Greiffenberg: Über das unaussprechliche heilige Geistes-Eingeben (Wehrli, 183); J. Rousset, Anthologie de la Poésie baroque française, I, Introduction, 20; Henry Vaughan: “The Night” (Works, ed. L. C. Marin, 523).

 

John Donne, Devotions, XV, (Complete Poetry and Selected Prose, ed. J. Hayward, 534); Richard Crashaw: A Hymne to Sainte Teresa(Poetical Works, ed. L. C. Marin, 2nd ed., 319); Quirinus Kuhlmann: Unio Mystica (Wehrli, 189).

 

Fr. von Spee: Die Gespons Jesu klaget ihrem Hertzen Brand (F. J. Warnke, European Metaphysical Poetry, 164).

 

列子張湛註

 

pp. 480 1. 西班牙神秘宗師分靈魂靜穆(callar)之等衰, 初地蒙昧不見外物(dormimos a las cosas temporales), 中地悶墨混忘自我(un olvido aún de nostros mismos), 終地如沉酣熟眠酒窟中(el anima se adormece como en celda vinaria)黑甜而無所知.

 

Francisco de Ossuna, Tercer Abecedario Espiritual, XXI. 4, Allison Peers, Spanish Mysticism, 74, 191.

 

p. 493. 聖·奧古斯丁嘗反躬省察, 醒時所能遏止之邪念於睡夢中沓來紛現, 乃究問理智此際安往(ubi est tunc ratio, qua talibus suggestionibus resistit vigilans)

 

St Augustine, Confessions, X. 30, “Loeb”, II, 152; cf. Paradise Lost, V, 108 ff..

 

pp. 514 5. 布魯諾昌言“至聖之無知”(santa ignoranza)、“至神之失心風”(divina pazzia)、“超越凡人之蠢驢境地”(sopraumana asinità); 季雍夫人自稱如“機關之抽發”(comme par un ressort), 如“球之輥轉”(une bale quen homme pousse), 如“穢惡器具”(un vil instrument)之由人川舍②. 皆與“械”、“塊”、“飄物”、“磨石”等類, “無建已之患, 無用知之累”, “頑似鄙”者. 巴斯楷爾說虔信云: “使汝蒙昧如畜獸”(cela vous fera croire et vous abêtira). 考論者謂當時笛楷爾之學方大行, 以為禽獸無靈性, 其運施祇同機器之動作 lautomatisme des bêtes); 巴斯楷爾若曰, 人而欲陟降在天, 當麻木其心, 斷思絕慮(une stupeur mentale, une abstention systématique de toute réflexion et de tout raisonnement), 效畜獸而法機關(sadresser à la bête, a la machine). 是亦“若械”之意耳.

 

Bruno, Cabala del cavallo pegaseo con laggiunta dell Asino Cillenico, Dialogo I, Opere di Bruno e di Campanella, Ricciardi, 553.

 

Mme Guyon: Conduite dAbandon à Dieu, J. Rousset, Anthologie de la Poésie baroque française, I, 137 et 139.

 

Pascal, Pensées, no. 233, éd. V. Giraud, 150.

 

É. Gilson, Les Idées et les Lettres, 268, 270, 274; cf. E. Baudin, La Philosophie de Pascal, I, 645.

 

pp. 524 5. 德國神秘宗鉅子亦謂: “誤入邪徑, 方登大道”(die liute koment ze grôzen dingen, sie sîen ze dem êrsten etwaz vertreten), 可相比勘也.

 

Eckhart, quoted in C. G. Jung, Psychologischen Typen, 340. cf. J. B. Yeats, Letters to His Son and Others, 179 (the word “invitation” should be substituted for “temptation” etc.).

 

p. 527. 有謂如接吻者(The soul receiving a kiss from the Godhead; the kiss exchanged between the unity of God and the humble human).

 

J. Clark, Meister Eckhart, 203, 242.

 

焦氏易林

 

p. 540. «舊約全書»載巴別城(the curse of Babel), 語言變亂不通(confound their language), 則不能合作成功, 亦可印契.

 

Genesis, 11, 6–8.

 

pp. 574 5. «大壯»: “左有噬熊, 右有嚙虎, 前觸鐵牙, 後躓強弩, 無可抵者. . . . 釋書擬喻有相類者, 而益險急. «法苑珠林»卷五七引«賓頭盧突羅闍為優陀延王說法經»: “昔日有人, 行在曠野, 逢大惡象, 為象所逐. … … 見一邱井, 即尋樹根, 入井中藏. 有白黑二鼠, 牙嚙樹根; 此井四邊, 有四毒蛇, 欲螫其人. 而此井下, 并有三大毒龍. … … 所攀之樹, 其根動搖. … … 於時動樹, 趟壞蜂窠, 眾蜂散飛, 唼螫其人. 有野火起, 復來燃樹”; 鳩摩羅什譯«維摩詰所說經·方便品»第二: “是身如丘井”句下自註: “昔有人有罪於王, 其人怖罪逃走, 王令醉象逐之”云云, 己撮述之. … … 釋氏故事於中世紀傳入基督教神甫之耳, 改頭換面, 貫穿為小說者, 采及此喻, 易象為獨角獸(unicorn), 後來形諸圖繪, 又易為熊(bear), 然數典而浸忘其祖矣.

 

St John Damascene, Barlaam and Ioasaph, xii, Apologue, 4, “Loeb”, 187–9; A. Dobson, A Bookman’s Budget, 85–6 (Jacob Cats).

 

楚辭洪興祖補註

 

pp. 599 600. 胥出一口, 宛若多身(monopolylogue), 敍述搬演, 雜用並施, 其法當類後世之“說話”、“說書”. 時而巫語稱“靈”, 時而靈語稱“予”, 交錯以出, «舊約全書»先知諸«»可以連類. 天帝降諭先知, 先知傳示邦人, 一篇之中稱“我”者, 或卽天帝, 或卽先知; 讀之尚堪揣摩天人貫注、神我流通(ein denkwürdiges Incinanderfliessen des göttlichen und des menschlichen Ich)之情狀①. 如聖公會官話譯本«阿摩司書»第三章第一節阿摩司告誡云: “以色列人哪! 你們全家是我從埃及地領上來得, 當聽耶和華攻擊你們的話”②; “我”、耶和華自稱也, “當聽”云云則阿摩司之言也. «彌迦書»第二章第七節: “豈可說耶和華的心腸狹窄麼? 這些事是他所行的麼?我的耶和華的言語豈不是與行動正直的人有益麼?”③; “他”、彌迦稱耶和華也, “我”、耶和華自道也, 字下黑點 . 譯者示此三字原文無而譯文所增以免誤會也.

 

W. Muschg, Tragische Literaturgeschichte, 3. Aufl., 97.

 

Amos, 3.1: Here this word that the Lord hath spoken against you, O children of Israel, against the whole family which I brought up from the land of Egypt, saying …”

 

Micah, 2.7: Is the Spirit of Jehovah straitened? are these his doings? Do not my words do good to him that walketh uprightly?

 

p. 611. 故聖·奧古斯丁闡釋«創世紀»所言未有天地時之混沌, 亦謂有質無形, 乃物質之可成形而未具形者(informitas materiae; quiddam inter formam et nihil; materia informe; materiem adhuc informem, sed certe formabilem);

 

Confessions, XII. iv, vi, viii, xvii, “Loeb”, II, 292, 294, 300, 326; cf. xx, xxii, xxix, pp. 332–4, 338, 361.

 

pp. 617 8. “心情與琴絲儷合, 組紾成歌”(consort both heart and lute, and twist a song), 固亦西方詩人舊說也.

 

George Herbert: “Easter”, Works, ed. E. F. Hutchinson, 42, 489, note.

 

太平廣記

 

p. 646. 基督教宗雖無思凡之說, 顧似天上頗苦清靜, 無事而亦無聊, 和適而又沉悶(lennui du ciel), 有若“無間歇之星期日”(Because its Sunday all the time/ And Recess never comes). 但丁、密爾敦二豪均信有天堂: 一寫天堂諸衆見凡人來, 如池魚覩投物, 以為得食, 噞喁紛聚(Come n peschiera ch’è tranquilla e pura/traggonsi i pesci a ciò che vien di fori/per modo che lo stimin lor pastura); 一寫天堂諸衆聞有携人間消息至者, 奔赴問訊, 星流雲集(in multitudes,/The Ethereal people ran, to hear and know). 桃源中人聞武陵漁夫來, 無如許急遽, 則上界日月之難於消磨, 天神之靜極思動、閒極生忙, 皆可文外得之.

 

Max Milner, Le Diable dans la littérature française, I, 286, 389 (Vigny).

 

Emily Dickinson: I Never Felt at Home Below.

 

Paradiso, V, 100102.

 

Paradise Lost, X, 267.

 

p. 650. 中世紀神甫斤斤辯究天堂中有無矢溺(Aquinas could gravely debate, whether there are wxcrements in Paradise). 馬丁·路德則斷言“上帝矢無溺”(Gott kacket und bisset nicht). 伏爾泰謂上帝無腸胃, 不飲食, 凡人自負於上帝具體而微, 乃蹲踞溷上了不知羞(Toi limage de Dieu sur ta chaise percée!).

 

Disraeli, Curiosities of Literature, Chandos Classics, I, 645.

 

Quoted in F. Mauthner, Kritik der Sprache, 3. Aufl., I, 60.

 

Voltaire, Dictionnaire philosophique, art. Déjection, Oeuv. comp., ed. L. Moland, XVIII, 326.

 

p. 650. 仙師重道尊經, 不輕許濫傳, 遂設阱垂餌, 極考校之苛峻. 西方中世紀基督教苦行長老於從學者試其願力堅固, 頗有肖者⑥. 用意皆欲得其人也. 釋典試誘, 情事頗異; 主試常為魔鬼, 旨在使修淨業者破戒, 則用意欲敗其人矣, 又與西說魔鬼惑僧侶相似. «佛本行集經·魔怖菩薩品»第三一是, 彷彿«舊約全書·約伯記»撒但之料理約伯、«新約全書·馬太福音»第四章魔鬼之誘引耶穌.

 

Gibbon, Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, ch. 37, The Worlds Classics, IV, 778 (trials of patience and endurance).

 

pp. 655 6. 西方中世紀苦行僧試其徒, 亦或命之拋所生呱呱赤子於深沼中(to cast their infant into a deep pond).

 

Gibbon, loc. cit., 78.

 

p. 666. 費爾巴哈謂, 非特如願以償, 抑且不稍遲阻而隨願即償, 是為神工奇蹟(Und siehe da! so schnell wie der Wunsch, so schnell ist das Wunder. Die Wunderkraft verwirklicht augenblicklich, mit einem Schlag, ohne alles Hinderniss, die menschlichen Wünsche);

 

Feuerbach, Das Wesen des Christenthums, Kap. 14, Sämmtliche Werke, hrsg. W. Bolin und F. Jodl, VI, 156.

 

p. 685. 西方教徒如紅衣主教貝拉明(Cardinal Bellarmine)不去身上蝨, 以為么麼死後無靈魂, 此生暫得飽噉, 不必靳之.

 

p. 688. 西方虔信基督教者亦嘗揚言: “世上紀念莎士比亞生辰, 地獄中莎士比亞方在受罪”(At this very moment there is proceeding, unreproved, a blasphemous celebration of the birth of Shakespeare, a lost soul now suffering for his sins in hell);

 

E. Gosse, Father and Son, ch. 12.

 

p. 710. 西方舊日僧侶畫魔鬼像猙獰醜惡, 資袪除之用, 據云魔鬼自慚形穢, 羞見己相(It was also believed that the devil felt much mortification in being thus portrayed).

 

J. Dunlop, The History of Fiction, 4th ed., 289.

 

p. 724. 意大利文藝復興時雕鏤妙手自記晉謁教皇, 教皇豬視之(Giunto al Papa, guardatomi così collocchio del porco), 註家曰: “斜睨也”(cioè biecament)

 

B. Cellini, La Vita scritta per Lui Medesimo, I. x. 6, a cura di A. J. Rusconi e A. Valeri, 121, 126.

 

p. 743. 西方舊籍記一人(Barballius)好作詩, 羅馬教皇(Leo X)戲譽之為可比詩聖(Petrarch), 是人大喜自詡, 友知其遭弄, 直言諫之, 乃大恚怒, 謂己才高為朋友所嫉; 正并州士之類.

 

Anatomy of Melancholy, Part. I, Sect. II, Mem. IV, Subs. IV, Bell, I, 393.

 

p. 782. 西方禮俗以指環為結婚標誌, 基督教«婚儀詞»(Solemnization of Matrimony)所謂: “夫婦禮成, 指環為證”(With this ring I thee wed);

 

p. 841. 西方誦說巴斯楷爾勸人虔奉上帝語, 謂寧可信有神道, 如賭博下注然, 勝則有大利, 負却無毫髮損失(Oui, il faut parier. Si vous gagnez, vous gagnez tout; si vous perdez, vous ne perdez rien); 吾國先秦以來茲說舊矣.

 

Pascal, Pensée, III. 233, ed. V. Giraud, 147.

 

增訂

 

p. 847. 606«九歌·大司命». 參觀«毛詩正義»卷論«正月»“天不管”. 十六世紀德國詩人(Hans Sachs)«聖彼得牧羊»(Sankt Peter mit der Geiss), 妙於嘲詼, 茲撮述之. 聖彼得覩世事不得其平, 人多怨苦, 乃諫天主曰: “皇矣上帝, 周知全能, 萬物之主, 奈何萬事不理, 於下之呼籲祈求若罔聞乎?” 天主曰: “吾欲命汝攝吾位一日, 汝好為之.” 彼得欣然不讓. 適有貧嫗, 枯瘠襤褸, 縱一羊於野食草, 祝曰: “乞上帝庇祐, 俾勿遭難!” 天主語彼得: “汝聞此嫗之禱矣, 胡不垂憐, 以昭靈應.” 彼得因加意護此羊, 而羊頑劣矯健, 上山下谷, 馳躍無已時, 彼得追逐, 罷於奔命, 汗出如濯, 亟待日落, 得息仔肩, 天主顧而大笑(Der Herr sah Petrum an und lacht) (The Oxford Book of German Verse, 158). 蓋一羊尚不勝牧, 而況牧四海衆生哉? 故“靈脩浩蕩, 不察民心”, 便如王逸所謂“不在於我”, 亦省却“日千變”而“比人忙”耳. 偏其反而, 則英諺有云: “魔鬼是大辛勤人”, “魔鬼最忙於所事”(The devil is a very hard-working fellow; The Devil is a busy bishop in his own diocese). 萬能上帝、游手無為, 而萬惡魔鬼、鞠躬勇為, 此一詩兩諺可抵一部有神論者之世界史綱也.

 

全上古三代秦漢三國六朝文

 

pp. 917 8. 人常謂基督教之大盛之世, 以賞心適體為厲禁而自苦為極則(that men should not please themselves but deny themselves everything they take delight in); 相傳中世紀有數修士, 一日偕行, 經樹下, 聞鶯啼圓潤清和, 聽而樂之, 徘徊不忍去, 一士最敏, 忽悟曰: “此鶯莫非魔鬼幻形乎?(dass diese Nachtigall wohl ein Teufel sein könne), 蓋一切可耽愛之事物, 當時胥視為魔鬼惑誘之具也(die Zeit die alles, was süss und lieblich war, als Teufelei verschrie).

 

John Selden, Table-Talk, ed. S. W. Singer and rev. W. S. W. Anson, 120; cf. Spinoza, Ethica, IV, Appendix, §31.

 

Heine, Zur Geschichte der Religion und Philosophie in Deutschland, I, Sämtliche Werke, A. Weichert, VIII, 156.

 

p. 929. 基督教«聖經»亦以驢轉磨石(molam asimarium)喻人生;

 

Vulgate: Mat., 18. 6.

 

p. 1002. «舊約全書·列王紀»上記二妓爭二, 所羅門王命左右取劍, : “剖兒為兩, 各得半體”(Fetch me a sword. Divide the living child in two, and give half to the one, and half to the other); 一妓乞勿殺兒, 己願捨讓, 一妓言殺之為尚, 復無爭端; 王遂判是非.

 

I. Kings, 3. 1618.

 

p. 1005. Cf. Odon de Cluny: stercoris saccum amplecti desideramus!, quoted in R. de Gourmont, Le Latin mystique, 302;

 

p. 1017. 基督教«聖經»寫上帝之降, 突如來如, 無聲無臭, 屢曰: “有若黑夜之竊賊”(as a thief in the night);

 

I. Thessalonians, 5. 2; II Peter, 3. 10; Revelations, 3. 3. Cf. Mathew, 24. 43; Luke, 12. 39.

 

p. 1132. 宋明儒者又以釋氏之“自性空明”說“屢空”, 亦何晏之遺意, 猶西方神秘宗標“貧窮”(mistico-povero), 謂外物空匱而復中心空洞.

 

Cf. Evelyn Underhill, Mysticism, 12th ed., 205, 207; S. de Sanctis, Religious Conversion, 176–7.

 

pp. 1153 4. 十七世紀英國詩人寫仰視崇山接天, 殊恐行空皓月觸峰尖而破墮, 如舟之觸礁以沉者(Doth not a Tenarif, or higher Hill/ Rise so high like a Rocke, that one might thinke/ The floating Moone would shipwrack there, and sinke?)

 

Donne: “An Anatomie of the World”, Complete Peotry and Selected Prose, ed. J. Hayward, 204.

 

p. 1233. 欲知吾國神秘宗指略, 易簡便讀, 無或逾其書焉者, 正如西方神秘家言要覽, 莫過贗託之狄奧尼修士(Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite)

 

p. 1249. 天主教規以星期五為齋日, 禁食肉而不忌魚腥; 有人於是日過酒家, 適覩鷄甚肥, 即捉付神甫, 請施洗命名, 比於嬰兒, “以水灑鷄首, 呪曰: ‘吾肇錫汝以鯽、鱸之嘉名’”(Jetez leur un peu deau sur la tête, et dites: Baptiso te Carpam et Percham), 即可烹食而不破齋矣.

 

Mérimée, Chronique du règne de Charles IX, ch. 23, Romans et Nouvelles, “Bib. de la Pléiade”, 197; cf. Chronique du règne de Charles IX, ed. G. Dulong, “Les Textes Français”, 277, note (Pierre de l’Estoile, Journal de Henri III).

 

p. 1259. 十七世紀一博學士嘗謂回教天堂中極人五欲之樂(a heaven where there is sensible pleasure), 而基督教天堂中極樂而不知所樂為何(a heaven where we shall enjoy we cant tell what);

 

John Selden, Table-Talk, ed. S. W. Singer, rev. W. S. W. Anson, Routlege, 104. Cf. Alfred de Vigny, Journal d’un Poète, Oeuv. comp. “la Pléiade”, II, 896; Heine: “Ali Bei”: “Vorgeschmack des Paradieses/ Gönnt ihm Allah schon auf Erden” usw.

 

p. 1260. «新約全書·使徒行傳»第一六章: “傳說救人的道”, 第一九章: “後來有些人, … … 毀謗這道. … … 這道起的擾亂不小”官話譯本»); 是復“到其所道”也.

 

The Acts, 16. 17 (the way of salvation); 19. 9 and 23 (speaking evil of the Way; no small stir concerning the Way).

 

p. 1264. 又按羅什“嚼飯”語, 亦見«高僧傳»卷二本傳, 文廷式«純常子枝語»卷一三申之曰: “今以英法文譯中國詩、書者, 其失味更可知. 即今中國之從天主、耶穌者, 大半村鄙之民, 其譯新、舊約等書亦斷不能得其真意. 覽者乃由譯本輒生論議, 互相詆訾, 此亦文字劫海矣!

 

p. 1379. 梁武«斷酒肉文»第一首: “又有一種愚痴之人, : ‘我祇噉魚, 實不食肉’”; 蓋謂食魚不得為犯斷肉之戒, 又類天主教之以斷肉食魚為持齋. 佛教持齋食素, 無肉而退思魚, 彼教持齋食魚, 有魚而進思肉, 得隴望蜀, 亦人欲難饜也. 西方舊謔謂西班牙一主教星期五齋日出行, 打尖客舍中, 覓魚不得而獲雙雞, 乃命庖烹以為饌, 庖大驚怪, 主教笑曰: “吾以鷄當作魚而啖之耳(I eat them as if they were fish). 吾乃教士, 領聖餐時, 使麵包為耶穌聖體, 則使鷄為魚, 尚是小顯神通也”(Which do you think is a greater miracle, to change bread into the body of Christ or partridge into fish?); 又一游記言有土爾其人被意大利所俘, 受洗禮, 改信基督教, 伙伴忽見其於齋日食肉, 厲訶犯戒, 渠申辯曰: “吾所食正是魚耳. 曩者人挈我入教堂, 灑水於我頭上而詔告曰: ‘汝為基督徒矣!’吾亦如法炮製, 取君等視為肉者, 灑水其上而命之曰: ‘汝為魚矣!’ 故食之無傷也”(Je vous assure que cest du poisson. On mamène à lÉglise, on ma jetté un peu deau sur la tête et on ma dit, tu es Chrétien. Jai fait la même chose, jai jetté un peu deau sur ce qui vous paroît de la viande et jai dit, tu es poisson. Voilà pourquoi jen mange aujourdhui).

 

Poggio, Liber Facetiarum, in C. Speroni, Wit and Wisdom of the Italian Renaissance, 51.

 

J.-B. Labat, Voyages en Espagne et en Italie, 1730, VI, 113.

 

p. 1426. 神秘宗師又以扃閉內外之心齋比於靈魂之作繭自裹, 豁然澈悟則猶蛹破繭、翩翩作白蝴蝶(y sale del mismo capucho una mariposita blanca muy graciosa).

 

Santa Teresa de Jesus, Moradas, V. 2, E. Allison Peers, Spanish Mysticism, 104, 215.

 

p. 1445. 舊日基督教以“決疑”為專科之學(casuistry), 俾破戒得所藉口(distinguo)而若未破戒然(a set of rules for the breaking of rules), 此物此志.

 

C. F. D’Arcy, A Short Study of Ethics, 218.

 

p. 1482. 天紙、雁書亦見西方詩文中. 如猶太古經(the Talmud): “海水皆墨汁, 蘆葦皆筆, 天作羊皮紙, 舉世人作書手, 尚不足傳上帝之聖心”(If all seas were ink and all rushes pens and the whole Heaven parchment and all sons of men writers, they would not be enough to describe the depth of the mind of the Lord);

 

[Cf. Shabbat 11a: “Raba b. Mehasia also said in the name of R. Hama b. Goria in Rab’s name: If all seas were ink, reeds pens, the heavens parchment, and all men writers, they would not suffice to write down the intricacies of government. Said R. Mesharshia, What verse [teaches this]? The heaven for height, and the earth for depth, and the heart of kings is unsearchable”(trans. Soncino), Proverb 25:3.]

 

p. 1515. 基督教會三戒, 一曰貧、不蓄財也, 二曰巽、不上人也, 三曰貞、不為男女事也; 十八世紀英國大史家嘗記: “偶憶一大寺長老自言: ‘吾誓守清貧之戒, 遂得歲入十萬金; 吾誓守巽下之戒, 遂得位尊等王公; 其誓守貞潔之戒所得伊何, 惜余忘之矣’”(I have somewhere heard or read the frank confession of a Benedictine abbot: My vow of poverty has given me an hundred thousand crowns a year; my vow of obedience has raised me to the rank of a sovereign Prince” — I forget the consequences of his vow of chastity).

 

Gibbon, Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, ch. 7, “The World’s Classics”, IV, 83. Cf. Montesquieu, Cahiers 1716–1755, Gresset, 132: “Il est très surprenant que les richesses des gens d’Église ayant commencé par le principe de pauvreté”.

 

p. 1540. 西人嘗言: “耶穌基督而復生, 必不信奉流行之基督教”(Christ was not a Christian, and certainly would not have been if born within the Christian era; If Christ were here now, there is one thing he would not be a Christian), 足相發明.

 

The Swinburn Letters, ed. C. Y. Lang, IV, 147; Mark Twain, Notebook, quoted in Philip S. Foner, Mark Twain Social Critic, International Publishers, 200. Cf. John Wilkes: “The fellow is a Wilkite which Your Majesty knows I never was”; Henry James: “Tennyson was not Tennysonian”; Engels: “Ganz wie Marx von den französisch ‘Marxisten’ der letzten 70er Jahre sagte: ‘Tout ce que je sais, c’est que je ne suis pas marxiste’”(Marx-Engels, Ausgewählte Schriften, Dietz, II, 457).

 

p. 1541. 意大利文藝復興時有“為行善而作惡”(pro bono malum)之說, 寖假而成耶穌會所標“目的正, 則手段之邪者亦正”(The end justifies the means).

 

Pareto, A Treatise on General Sociology, tr. A. Bongiorno and A. Livingstone, §1926, Dover ed., II, 1229; R. Samat, Per la Storia dello Stile rinascimentale, 73 (Ariosto).

 

p. 1542. 馬丁·路德力主教士當婚娶同俗人, 因舉一尼菴池中有六千具嬰兒骸等事, 慨然曰: “勉强獨身, 得果如斯!(Such were the fruits of the enforced celibacy).

 

Luther, Table Talk, DCCLIV, tr. W. Hazlitt, “Bohn’s Lib.”, 307; Burton, Anatomy of Melancholy, Part. III, Sect. II, Mem. V, Subs. V, “Everyman’s Lib”, II, 244 (Ulricus).

 

p. 1542. 教宗無是非邪正, 而信徒有真假誠偽; 信徒能不惜以身殉教, 足以明其心志之真誠, 顧教宗有徒衆甘為之死, 卻未堪證其道理之必是必正爾.

 

Cf. Goethe, Dichtung und Wahrheit, III, xiv: “Beim Glauben, sagte ich, komme alles darauf an, dass man glaube; was man glaube, sei völlig gleichgültig… Mit dem Wissen sei es gerade das Gegenteil; es komme gar nicht darauf an, dass man wisse, sondern was man wisse, wie gut und wie viel man wisse” (Sämtliche Werke, “Tempel-Klassiker”, XII, 202); Kierkegaard, Unscientific Postscript: “The one prays in truth to God though he worships an idol; the other prays falsely to the true God, and hence worships in fact an idol… The objective accent falls on what is said, the subjective accent on how it is said” (R. Bretall, ed., A Kierkegaard Anthology, 212); Jaspers, The Perennial Scope of Philosophy, tr. R. Manheim, 4: “Giordano Bruno believed and Galileo knew” etc.

 

管錐編增訂

 

pp. 1 2. 7. 聖奧古斯丁語, 可參觀亞理士多德所謂上帝有“不動之動” (an activity of immobility Nicom. Eth., Bk VII, ch.14, Basic Works of Aristotle, Random House, 1058). 後世基督教頌神詩, 亦或言“不動尊”(der Unbewegliche), “萬物運行而彼寧靜”(Es regt sich alles zwar, doch er bleibt unbewegt Daniel von Czepko, Sexcenta monodistiche Sapientum, in M. Wehrli, Deutsche Barocklyrik, 3. Aufl., 170). 十九世紀端士名小說«綠衣亨利»卷三首章純發議論, 以天運通之藝事, 標“動中之靜”(die Ruhe in der Bewegung)爲究竟義, 初非新諦, 而取譬詼詭: “上帝寂然若伏鼠, 宇宙拱而運旋” (Gott hält sich mäuschenstill, darum bewegt sich die Welt um ihn G. Keiller, Der grüne Heinrich, III.1, Sämtl. Werke, Aufbau, IV, 374). 擬上帝於鼷鼠, 正如«聖經»擬上帝於“竊賊”(參觀1017), «詩·文王»以“無聲無臭”形容“上天之載”之旨, «老子»反復所言“玄德”(第一〇、五一、六五章; 參觀一五章: “古之善為道者, 微妙玄通, 深不可識”), 王弼註謂“不知其主, 出乎幽冥”者也(參觀第一八章註: “行術用明, … … 趣覩形見, 物知避之”; 三六章註: “器不可覩, 而物各得其所, 則國之利器也”; 四九章註: “害之大也, 莫大於用其明矣. … … 無所察焉, 百姓何避?). 尊嚴上帝, 屏息潛蹤, 靜如鼠子, 動若偷兒, 用意蓋同申、韓、鬼谷輩侈陳“聖人之道陰, 在隱與匿”、“聖人責夜行”耳(參觀2688). «韓非子·八經»: “故明主之行制也天, 其用人也鬼”, 舊註謂如天之“不可測”, 如鬼之“陰密”. «老子»第四一章稱“道”曰“建德若偷”(參觀嚴遵«道德指歸論·上士聞道篇»: “建德若偷, 無所不成”), 王弼註: “偷、匹也,義不可通, 校改紛如, 都未厭心, 竊以為“匹”乃“匿”之訛. “偷”如«莊子·漁父» “偷拔其所欲謂之險”之“偷”, 宣穎註: “潛引人心中之欲. «出曜經»卷一五«利養品»下稱“息心”得“智慧解脫”曰: “如鼠藏穴, 潛隱習教.” 夫證道得解, 而曰“若偷”“如鼠”, 殆類“孤寡不穀, 而王公以為稱”(第四二章, 又三九章).

 

p. 3. 19. 十六世紀基督教神甫制定“內心保留”(mental reservation)之法, 作用大同.

 

p. 6. 22. 海湼屢取譬於此, 如追憶亡友一編中言宗教為“可口之催眠藥水、精神鴉片(geistiges Opium); 1840年巴黎通信譏英國人日趨惰靡, 將如中國人之不尚武, “宗教虔信主義乃最有害之鴉片”(durch den Pietismus, dieses schlimmste Opium), 與有咎焉(Ludwig Börne: eine Denkschrift, IV; Lutetia, XVI Werke und Briefe, Aufbau, VI, 194, 327).

 

pp. 16 7. 146. 法國有一古劇, 搬演“聾子上帝”, 斯萊爾夫人«雜記»撮述其情景. 上帝作老叟狀, 酣卧雲上(an old man lying fast asleep with clouds under him), 一天使搖撼之, 疾呼曰: “上皇之愛子[耶穌]命在須臾, 乃尚如醉漢熟睡耶!” 上帝喃喃囈語曰: “魔鬼捉降我去! 所言何事, 我一字未聞也”(Diable memporte si jen ai ouï dire la moindre chose Thralina, ed. Katharine C. Balderston, 2nd ed., II, 699). 亦滑稽善諷者矣. 蓋言其伺隙匿踪, 則上帝如偷兒鼠子, 言其放心廢務, 則上帝如聾子醉人; 兩者並行, 初不相倍, 猶人既察察為明, 每亦昏昏如夢. 所謂善言天者必取譬於人.

 

pp. 44 45. 571. 法國古詩人頌讚耶穌誕生之夕為“非晝非夜之第三時間”(un troisième temps qui nest ny nuit ny jour Du Bois-Hus: La Nuit des Nuits, J. Rousset, Anthologie de la Poésie baroque française, I, 172).

 

p. 64. 765. 釋典祇言諸佛聚坐之處小“如錐頭針鋒”, 西方宗教家則逕謂天使濟濟有衆, 以針鋒為坐席. 德國神秘宗大師(Meister Eckhart)卽言天堂中靈魂千輩團坐於一針之尖(tûsent sêlen sitzent in dem himel ûf einer nâdelstize F. Pfeiffer, Deutsche Mystiker des 14. Jahrhunderts, II, 474.)

 

[mondain : 語出 Schwester Katrei, 十四世紀一異端團體(Brüder und Schwestern des freien Geistes)作品, Franz Pfeiffer 誤收.]

 

p. 70. 847. 吾國古說不特謂上帝萬事不理, 并偶有謂上帝唯惡是務. «詩·生民»: “居然生子”句下«正義»: “王基曰: `王肅信二龍實生褒姒, 不信天帝能生后稷. 是謂上帝但能作妖, 不能為嘉祥, 長於為惡, 短於為善. 肅之乖戾, 此為甚矣!’” 西方十八世紀以還, 有主“上帝性惡”, “乃惡毒無上天尊”者(le mal est lessence de Dieu; lÊtre suprême en méchantceté — Mario Praz, The Romantic Agony, 1023). 王肅“乖戾”, 於此意引而不發、明而未融耳. 舉似以補考論吾國宗教家言之闕.

 

p. 71. 850. 西土舊俗以北方屬魔鬼所轄, 亦可徵諸意大利文藝復興時名著«藝人列傳». 一畫師(Spinello of Arezzo)為教堂祭壇彩繪, 畫魔鬼雄長於北, 天使之遭上帝貶斥者紛如雨下而成小鬼(representing Lucifer establishing his seat in the north, and the fall of the angels, who chage into devils as they rain upon the earth Giorgio Vasari, The Lives of the Painters, Sculptors, and Architects, “Everyman’s Library”, I, 183).

 

管錐編增訂之二

 

p. 161. 389. 當世英國小說家以不信奉基督教者之靈魂比於闇室中飛旋之鳥, 撲窗求出, 渾不知有門洞開, 戶外風清日朗([The pagan soul can be compared] Better, to a bird fluttering about in the gloom, beatling against the windows when all the time the doors are open to the air and sun. Evelyn Waugh, Diaries, ed. M. Davie, 1976, p. 783).

 

p. 163. 408. 西班牙神秘宗師謂“聖漠然”乃無言、無欲、無思之舉靜俱寂境界, 上帝此際與靈魂密語(No hablando, no deseando, no pensando se llega al verdadero y perfecto silencio místico, en el cual habla Diós con el alma. Molinos, Guía espiritual, lib. I, cap. 17, in B. Croce La Poesia, 5a ed., 1953, p. 263).

 

p. 169. 464. 聖·奧古斯丁讚頌上帝, 皆出以“寃親詞”, 如云: “至隱而至顯”, “長動而長止”, “赫怒而寧靜”, “言說而緘默”(Secretissime et praesentissime; semper agens, semper quietus; irasceris et tranquillus; loquens muti. Confessions, I, iv, Loeb, Vol. I, p. 8); 又自省云: “人居世間, 乃死亡之生歟? 抑生存之死歟? (dico vitam mortalem, an mortem vitalem? — ib. I. vi. p. 12)

 

p. 180. 661. 德國神秘宗師愛克哈特論神工, 以“自無成有”之“創造”別於“由渾至畫”之“經營”(He carefully distinguishes between creation and organisation, creating from nothing and the ordering of existing material. James M. Clark, Meister Eckhart, p. 42).

 

p. 183. 646. 海涅有詩, 述夢已成上帝, 高拱九霄, 諸神環坐, 口飫甘旨, 極清貴之福, 而無聊悶厭不可堪, 毋寧墮地獄入九幽為魔鬼(Doch Langweile plagt mich sehr, / Ich wollt ich wär au Erden, / Und wär ich nicht der liebe Gott, / Ich könnt des Teufel werden. Die Heimkehr, lxvi, Mir träumt, Werke und Briefe, Vol. I, p. 137). 亦寫“天上之沉悶”(lennui du ciel). 處人間地獄固不聊生, 而居人世天堂卽無聊賴以至將無事生事爾.

 

p. 200. 847. 近人闡釋布萊克為«舊約·約伯書»所繪插圖, 謂畫中有“無所事事”之上帝(dieu fainéant)(Northrop Frye, Spiritus Mundi, 1976, pp. 231, 235).

 

p. 237. 1252. 古基督教以希臘、羅馬詩文為異端邪說, 禁信士勿讀. 一神甫謂無須戒絕, 當如蜂然, 既擇花而採, 亦不採全花. 人之採玫瑰也, 擷花而捨刺, 讀書亦求獲其益而慎防其害爾(It is, therefore, in accordance with the whole similitude of the bees, that we should participate in the pagan literature. For these neither approach all flowers equally, nor do they attempt to carry off entire those upon with they alight. And just as in plucking the blooms of a rose-bed we avoid the thorns, so also in garnering from such writings whatever is useful, let us guard ourselves against what is harmful. — St Basil: “To Young Men on How They Might Derive Profit from Pagan Literature”, Letters, Loeb, Vol. IV, pp. 391–3).

 

p. 260. 1496頁、«增訂»116. 英國十八世紀有人論英國新教徒仇視天主教, 謂流俗深信羅馬教皇為“基督之怨家”、“巴比倫之娼婦”; 此等醜詆, 衛道有功, 勝於神學家理正詞嚴之辯駁多矣(The good Protestant conviction, that the Pope is both Anti-Christ and the whore of Babylon, is a more effectual preservation in this country against Popery than all the solid and unanswerable arguments of Chillingworth. Lord Chesterfield, Letters, ed. B. Dobrée, Vol. IV, p. 1307). 可與“緇徒畏昌黎而不畏宋儒”參觀.

 

p. 265. 1540. 尼采嘗言: “奚考其實, 基督教祇有一人, 渠已死於十字架上矣”(im Grunde gab es nur einen Christen, und der starb am Kreuz. Der Antichrist, §39, Werke, ed. K. Schlechta, 1955, Vol. II, p. 1200). 亦卽史文朋與馬克·吐溫所謂“耶穌基督非基督教徒”或“使耶穌基督在世, 決不信奉基督教”. 原註引亨利·詹姆士言, 漏植來歷為«中歲回憶»(The Middle Years, p. 107). 參觀«談藝錄»(補訂本)51517.

 

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